Together with Carthage and Utica, Hadrumetum was one of the oldest cities of ancient Africa. Ancient sources consider it a Phoenician foundation, which is, according to the Roman historian Sallust, older than Carthage. Simple Maritime and Commercial relay at the beginning, it had become one of the largest cities in Africa when Rome destroyed Carthage in 146 BC. We know that Hadrumetum sided with Rome and had thus become a free city and friend of the Roman people. This freedom allowed it to manage its own affairs according to its own customs and traditions, and placed it outside the power (potestas) of the provincial governor.
Sousse, in Tunisian vernacular “Soussa,” is a toponym of Arabic origin whose meaning remains obscure. Its ancient name, having obvious Semitic tones, is Hadrumetum. Formerly capital of the Roman province of Byzacena, Sousse is today the capital of the Tunisian Sahel, better known as “the Pearl of the Sahel.” From the origins up to the present, human occupation there has never been interrupted, which resulted in the quasi total disappearance of its ancient remains. It is undoubtedly in Sousse, more than anywhere else in Tunisia, that preventive archeology debuted through the efforts of the Sousse Archaeological Society founded in 1902. The new constructions and major projects were always pretexts to start systematic excavations; the destruction caused by the World War II bombings had only stimulated this activity.
The most beautiful archaeological objects saved then recovered are displayed in the new museum found in the basement of the court of the Kasbah, a monument completed in the 9th century. Inaugurated in June 2012.
 Guerre de Jugurtha, 19.1.
 Province of Roman Africa created around 295 following the fragmentation of the great province of proconsular Africa.